basic food of the western world
In the western world, wheat is the most important grain for (direct) nutrition of mankind and is probably the staple food par excellence. This is particularly due to the high content of carbohydrates and proteins. Grains include wheat, rye, spelt, buckwheat, barley, oats, millet, corn and rice. Wheat provides us with 5 times more calories than potatoes and is the second most cultivated grain globally after corn, more than rice. Almost 3 billion tons of grain are grown worldwide, the most important varieties in terms of mass and ranking are maize, wheat and rice, the most important cultivation countries are China, USA, India, Russia and Brazil. Wheat represents about a quarter of global cereal crops, however does occupy the largest area under cultivation.
Wheat at approx. 70% consists mainly from carbohydrates (starch), contains approx. 11.5% protein, 2% fat and about 10% dietary fiber. Vitamins B and E and minerals are found in the darker husk of the wheat grain. Therefore, wholewheat flour is healthier. Flour is made when grains are finely ground. Flours made from wheat, spelled and rye can be baked on their own and therefore are also referred as bread grain. The degree of fineness is commonly defined as flour, grist, semolina or haze. In addition, grain bran, semolina bran, post-meal and animal feed are also produced during grinding.
Acc. to DIN10355, flours are divided into types of flour based on the proportion of minerals, res. the proportion of shells remaining in the flour. The classic flour type 405 contains 405mg of minerals per 100g of flour, thus 0.405%. The higher the number, the higher the mineral content and thus the nutritional value, the darker the flour. Minerals are e.g. B. potassium, magnesium, iron and zinc. Wholewheat flours contain all components of the grains and are not necessarily provided with a code. Type 405 describes classic household flour for baking cookies and cakes. The bakery uses type 550 for light rolls and type 812 for light and type 1050 for dark mixed bread. Type 1700 is whole wheat flour.
Flour in retail comes in 1kg household packs, for wholesale and transport, commonly is packed in 25kg sacks and 1 ton BigBags where most share of flour in transported unpackaged in silo containers.